Hypertension - high blood pressure
High blood pressure (hypertension) the term arterial blood pressure 150 mmHg greater (mm mercury pressure), small blood pressure equal to or higher than the 90 mm Hg is used in cases. Long periods of tension on the values of the individuals in this brain, kidney, heart and blood vessel disease is seen more often than those with normal blood pressure has proven to be a shorter life expectancy.
Large blood pressure (greater blood pressure), no matter how many small blood pressure (small blood pressure) 90 mmHg or greater, and there is a systemic high blood pressure should be treated. According to recent statistics, close to the upper limit of normal blood pressure is small (85-89 mm Hg) is understood to be a risk factor even.
Small (diastolic) blood pressure is not high, being less than 90 mm Hg, only larger (systolic) blood pressure, high systolic blood pressure. Blood pressure below 90 mm Hg in persons under the age of 70, while small and large blood pressure greater than 160 mm Hg should be treated. 70 years old to start treatment, blood pressure value greater than 170 mmHg or higher.
Hyperthyroidism, aortic valve insufficiency and venous connections throws-even though high blood pressure medication do not have large. In these cases of the disease should be treated. High blood pressure today is still the main risk factor for bleeding, and blockage of blood vessels in the brain. Moreover, cholesterol and smoking habits, as well as myocardial infarction are among the main reasons are the heart and circulatory failure caused by these diseases have been reported in 75 percent of the people.
In addition, significant changes such as thickening of the vessel wall, causing blood pressure elevation in occlusive vascular diseases, such as aneurysms, and renal failure has been proven to cause a number of tissue disorders. In the last 35 years, giant steps have been taken for drug treatment of high blood pressure, although there remains the above-mentioned facts to present. Today, not more side effects, in turn, are highly effective drugs. In recent years, as a result of these treatments lowered blood pressure, heart and blood vessel disease significantly reduced the rate of developing and dying from these diseases.
After the treatment of patients with high blood pressure experienced in these treatments were examined, and in particular on the effects of stroke, heart and circulatory failure, kidney failure and a reduced incidence of emergence, in contrast, patients with high blood pressure drugs such as angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, or heart muscle adequately motivated by the bagh kanlanamama determined to be less useful in prevention of diseases. Despite these advances, as confirmed in the most recent statistics, high blood pressure can still cause death.
The reason for this is sometimes due to the patient's negligence does not exceed the control of the physician-diagnosed and baby food and disease. Sometimes the drugs suggested by the physician after diagnosis or appropriate OJ-inducing drugs used in accordance with the selection and inspection more often the person being treated for heart and blood vessels is not enough structure. In theory, it is possible to achieve better results, the failures in the prevention of cardiac and vascular complications, constantly stresses the need of a therapeutic application. Accurate determination of the patient's risk of high blood pressure, on the other hand, the selection of drugs to be given to the patient an effective regulation needs to be done.
There are two types in terms of the formation mechanism of high blood pressure: essential and primary or secondary. The primary causes of high blood pressure is unclear, but, in the formation of disease inheritance, quickly affected psychologically exciting personality, has been identified by several factors such as obesity, high blood pressure may occur after the following diseases: renal arteries, and settled in the kidney tissue diseases (acute and chronic renal inflammation, poly- cystic kidney), adrenal gland hormones in the shell section due to illness, more than cortisone or aldosterone secretion in Cushing's disease and Crohn's disease as a result, the inner portion of the adrenal gland (medullary-la), tumor (pheochromocytoma), aortic stenosis in the region out of the heart, increased intracranial pressure. High blood pressure difference between pressure in the reaction needs to be done. The term blood pressure, high blood pressure as a continuous stay in some of the limits stated above, the excitability of blood pressure or blood pressure reaction, such as injection of medication into the rise temporarily due to a stimulus. Effect of stimulus disappears, causing blood pressure to rise back to normal.
High blood pressure will be put all the medical diagnosis is not passed, and high blood pressure high blood pressure, the distribution of evaluation criteria is not the same everywhere is impossible to determine precisely. Approximately 25 percent of adults have high blood pressure to a physician and 90 percent of their essential (primary) type.
After 20 minutes, rest and relaxation in blood pressure should be measured for diagnosis, three separate measurements made at different times from each other coming off the high blood pressure diagnosis of high blood pressure.
Blood pressure measurement, there are many restrictions and the possibility of error.
Examination and the response of the patient's physician at the beginning of their income. Here, even though blood pressure increases in response due to the excitement, people mistakenly diagnosed with high blood pressure.
In recent years, these inaccuracies in order to avoid disrupting daily activities and developed many techniques which enables the recording of blood pressure and automatically started to be implemented. Thus, from the 24-hour blood pressure values, blood pressure, high blood pressure, organ damage caused by the data obtained from the tool failed to clear up the exhibitions. However, the diagnostic monitoring of blood pressure monitor is dynamically superior in terms of evidence that could not be obtained. Therefore, this method is applied only to some selected will be limited to high blood pressure, which are frequently changing the patients blood, organs with high blood pressure, there being no exact link between trauma patients, often treated with blood pressure evaluation of the results desired Promoted phenomena.
Careful measurements of the majority of cases the danger of high blood pressure can be determined whether, if the patient can measure blood pressure at home to himself.
A general examination to identify the causes of secondary high blood pressure is important. Easily bought and the absence of an arm or leg artery pulses, pulse the arteries in the presence or absence of different severity of stroke, renal arteries stethoscope well the rest of the abdomen is required. In addition, urinalysis is done and the blood urea, uric acid, creatinine, electrolytes such as sodium and potassium level is determined.
Signs and symptoms are more or less, regardless of whether you need to treat high blood pressure linked to the debate the following resolution: Small blood pressure 90 mm Hg (mm of mercury), which is above all the patients, the treatment should be kept at the level of blood pressure 85 mmHg.
secondary treatment of high blood pressure treatment primarily aimed at the underlying disease, the primary high blood pressure to normal pressure under control and falling pressure is not resolved the problem of complications should be treated. The primary treatment of high blood pressure medication, as well as general measures are applied. General pre-Operations briefly as follows:
Nutrition - Some statistics show that overweight most of the industrialized societies, half of the population. This condition is usually high blood pressure, diabetes and vascular occur together, while the stand-alone or a risk factor for heart and circulatory system diseases. For this reason, high blood pressure, obese patient be the normal weight is of great importance. Patients with mild or moderate high blood pressure, often only giving weight to normal levels can reduce blood pressure. Weight given to each diastolic (small) decrease in blood pressure was 2-3 mmHg. In particular, saturated fats of animal origin (butter, suet) used less. These substances are taken excessive amounts of cholesterol in the blood level is increased, as a result of high blood pressure and other heart and circulatory system in terms of disease risk increases. Very few individuals have been observed in communities with high blood pressure seen in fed vegetables. Excessive intake of salt in foods should be avoided. Salt itself is a powerful vascular effects and blood pressure regulating systems. But recent studies show that salt restriction is effective in all cases of primary high blood pressure. As a result of salt restriction, and not responding to the primary high blood pressure can be mentioned varieties. Another point of attention lately is potassium. A bit of a diet rich in potassium to lower blood pressure observed mechanisms not yet fully clarified. Coffee also leads to elevations in blood pressure which lasted several hours 50-20 mmHg should be limited quantity. Excessive alcohol intake can be harmful, excessive alcohol, depending on when the sympathetic nervous system is a long-term high blood pressure. After all, high blood pressure patients, and other dairy products including cheese, very little animal fat and salt should eat, should eat plenty of fruit and vegetables. Should not take many calories-is.
Still life of war - high tension recommended people swimming, hiking, jogging, cycling and skiing sports such as isotonic type. Isometric exercises (weight lifting) is not recommended. The person who has consistently high blood pressure, applies the recommended exercises, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate will fall. Relaxation techniques - in industrialized societies with high levels of psychological stress can cause blood pressure to rise. Therefore, lowering blood pressure in recent years has lead to the use of relaxation techniques found to be useful.
stay away from cigarette smoke a single cigarette-smoke for 15-20 minutes in blood pressure caused by a sudden and has been proven to increase a few mmHg. Over-smoker with high blood pressure constantly faced the danger that is easily understood to what extent. The primary treatment of high blood pressure medications are used only in some selected experiences as a result. Fixed a treatment table, with the help of knowledge gained about the mechanisms regulating blood pressure does not change introduced will know to apply a treatment plan.
Although many mechanisms regulating blood pressure, which provides the most important and long-term effect, vessels and circulating blood volume shrinkage of nn regulating system. The amount of blood pumped by the heart's blood pressure vessels-arterioles (small arteries) is a product of the walls of resistance. This regulatory system, kidney and adrenal gland has two centers focus on the shell section. The balance between these is corruption and the implementation of two different mechanisms lead to high blood pressure treatment needed in each case is different. Them at the same time be effective in the form of high blood pressure causes more complex. High blood pressure, body due to excessive water and sodium retention caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid, diuretic drugs used to treat high blood pressure is connected to the vessel shrinkage, to prevent it, to solve the drugs take priority. In both types of drugs used in multiple ways in December.
Lowering blood pressure should also consider some special cases
High blood pressure, and the elderly - Once upon a time the elderly have been accepted as a natural phenomenon, though, high blood pressure vessels, speeds up the aging-specific changes. The effects of continuous and constant high blood pressure seen in the elderly, the very organs of brain, eye, heart and kidney. Cardiovascular system dysfunction occurs due to changes in these organs. After spending power in assessing the changes occurring in the body, increases blood pressure in healthy people should not be forgotten under the same conditions. Objective in the treatment of elderly patients, systolic blood pressure 170 mm Hg, while diastolic blood pressure below 90 mm Hg. Treatment in the elderly, young people is more difficult than other diseases because of the presence.
Sudden drops in blood pressure that is already in the brain circulation failure, bad-erishing us with sameness, this situation should be avoided. Stage of treatment, and "soft" started, maintaining a blood pressure reducer is recommended.
Rise in systolic blood pressure are also common in the elderly only. Systolic blood pressure rises with age.
This decrease in elasticity of the aorta and major arteries or not depends on. The elderly, systolic blood pressure above 170 mm Hg, diastolic pressure below 90 mm Hg in the urine initially at a low dose as possible to begin treatment.
High blood pressure and diabetes-high blood pressure, diabetes, compared to those without diabetes twice as often. Those with adult-type diabetes, high blood pressure have been proposed to explain the many assumptions. Obesity is seen in both diseases. Keeping blood pressure under control in diabetics slows down the trauma of the kidney and corrects the course of the disease.
High blood pressure and pregnancy - pregnancy or eclampsia during pregnancy high blood pressure, a single print statement can occur with the accumulation of fluid in the body. This situation will be negative results, especially for the fetus, blood pressure must be kept carefully under control.
High blood pressure and childhood - high blood pressure in childhood is very rare. Blood pressure to normal values, except for endocrine diseases, kidney disease and should suggest the narrowness of the aortic vessel; spiritual reasons or technical reasons such as incorrect measurements also play a role. Cough is usually uniform in weight loss problem in children and young adults with high blood pressure cases is a very large section of the problem caused by another illness, and therefore should be noted that the diagnosis of a survey and a specific treatment is necessary.
High blood pressure and kidney failure - Kidney disease to prevent exacerbation of tension must be kept under control. When selecting medications and dosages must be careful when setting the physician to reduce blood pressure and kidney functions should refrain from using substances that have an effect on the negative.
Lowering blood pressure is the lowest point to be discussed. Recent studies of blood pressure dropped lower than 85 mmHg indicates increased risk of death from myocardial infarction. This event is over 55 years of age and male smokers may seem more obvious, is not linked to the type of blood pressure lowering therapy. This hypothesis has been proposed on the different opinions and even, according to some, there is no scientific basis for it to be achieved but the level of blood pressure, side effects or symptoms of disease does not occur due to the low level.
The physician had to decide the duration of the treatment of a problem. In general, treatment of lifelong riding-entrance examination. Generally, almost all patients after discontinuation of drug treatment, return to the previous values of blood pressure are monitored. However, the tension is kept under control after a long period, without releasing the remains cautious, or the number of doses of the drugs used can be reduced.
The failure of treatment to reduce blood pressure, so the lack of suitable drugs, the patient does not fit enough or realistic treatment goal of treatment is due to reach this goal Identification and determination.
There are different drugs for blood pressure effects and mechanisms in use today. Thus, in almost all patients with normal blood pressure lowering is possible. Information on the causes of high blood pressure, which use a combination of drugs or which drugs may be more effective is not sensitive enough to detect. As a result, based on experience in the treatment of high blood pressure and an effective treatment program can be complex. With the use of drugs, have different dosages, long duration of treatment and are likely to be expensive because of the blood pressure is often an effective treatment can be difficult to sustain a long time.
Fully and without delay the start of early treatment is vital, with moderately high blood pressure, heart and circulatory system in patients without complications, a simple treatment programs are much easier to control. Finally, the patient must be told that the importance of long-term treatment, the patient's informed, is very important, especially in patients with chronic symptoms seen. This feels better in patients with high risk for themselves and need to know will decrease risk, they take their medication consistently and regularly. On the other hand, diseases or treatments, should not behave as a neurotic. In addition, the patient's blood pressure at home alone, you must also learn, so that is easier to maintain blood pressure treatment.
Primary or essential high blood pressure
Determined the cause of such cases is called high blood pressure. High blood pressure in the majority of patients (85-90 percent) can be seen. There are significant familial property, environmental, neurological, hormonal and vascular factors, although there may be the effect of different extent, is responsible for certain that none of them have not been established. Among other factors, excessive salt intake, emotional stress, and obesity is located. High blood pressure in people with an inherited predisposition to the emergence of these factors caused or aggravated pre-existing high blood pressure is thought.
Secondary high blood pressure
Another disease causes blood pressure to rise. Diseases that cause high blood pressure include:
Kidney inflammation (glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis). Renovascular hypertension and consequent narrowing of renal blood flow to the kidney is reduced. As a result, hormone production and secretion of renin in the kidney is increased, this also leads to high blood pressure by activating angiotensin.
endocrine diseases. Some diseases of the thyroid gland leads to moderate high blood pressure. Especially in some diseases of the adrenal gland (pheochromocytoma, Cus-hing disease, hyperaldosteronism) is high blood pressure.
Diseases of the nervous system. Some brain tumors can cause high blood pressure.
Arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). As a result of high blood pressure, as well as active involvement, may also cause high blood pressure. Narrowing of the kidney, especially marine atarda renovascular high blood pressure, hardening of the arteries in systolic high blood pressure leads to large. Some drugs (corticosteroids, birth control pills) or food (liquorice), taking the lead to high blood pressure.
The main risk factor can determine blood pressure:
Balance of factors which caused the blood pressure related to each other. Blood pressure, heart, blood vessels and determine the mass. Factors regulating the pressure on their effect. In a broad sense, the left ventricle of the heart pumped blood volume of a specific time unit and the edge against the resistance of blood vessels caused by blood flow. Your heart beat, heart rate and depends on the strength of heart muscle contraction. Resistance is inversely proportional to the diameter of the vein. For this reason, pressure largely surrounded arterioles (small arteries) is caused by shrinkage. Arterioles become effective on the perimeter, the factors regulating the pressure in the first place. Fluidity of the blood is important in increasing resistance to edge a little. Fluidity of the blood (often due to the increase in the number of red blood cells), though the vessel diameter increases resistance.
Fluidity of the blood is less than 2.5 times. Another factor that determines blood pressure, blood volume .. Plasma volume increases or decreases, in accordance with changes in blood pressure leads to its stabilization.